Hum. Netw. The worsening effects of video game violence in children are due to the game’s interactive nature. 27, 118–128. Am. Psychol. Also, a third factor (e.g., preexisting mental difficulties) may produce both psychological dysfunction and potentially problematic gaming. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2012.04.018, Hussain, Z., and Griffiths, M. D. (2009). Rubenstein, C., and Shaver, P. R. (1982). Prediction of potentially problematic video game use by psychological functioning variables. *Correspondence: Juliane M. von der Heiden, vonderheiden@uni-mainz.de, Front. You want to measure coping but your protocol’s too long: consider the brief cope. Cronbach’s alpha was α = 0.70. doi: 10.1097/YCO.0b013e32816ebc8c, Király, O., Urbán, R., Griffith, M. D., Ágoston, C., Nagygyörgy, K., Kökönyei, G., et al. While we don’t know for certain that it will improve the memory of a 13 year old, it certainly won’t hurt it. Newzoo (2017). A clinical evaluation of the DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder and a pilot study on their applicability to further Internet-related disorders. Planning, active coping, and, to a lesser extent, positive reframing were negatively associated with the potentially problematic use of video games. (1996). Gamers who played video games to improve their real-life abilities also reported more online connections. The current study adds to the knowledge on gaming by uncovering the specific relations between video gaming and distinct measures of psychological functioning. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.54.6.1063. Behav. Int. Social activities, self-efficacy, game attitudes, and game addiction. It was neither a straight, or an easy road for the video game industry. Table 1. Table 2. Regular gaming behavior and internet gaming disorder in European adolescents: results from a cross-national representative survey of prevalence, predictors and psychopathological correlates. Rev. Affect. However, there were merely differences with regard to the relation of psychological functioning and game genre, when analyzed separately for different age groups (<19 years, n = 557; 19–30 years, n = 1916; >31 years, n = 261). 49, 115–124. And because the industry was so young at the time, many people would fall victim to pseudo-science, ultimately using inconclusive studies to solidify their beliefs. However, the media as well as professionals have underscored the potential dangers of excessive video gaming. doi: 10.1002/ab.20290, Müller, K. W., Beutel, M. E., Dreier, M., and Wölfling, K. (2019). The relationship between online video game involvement and gaming-related friendships among emotionally sensitive individuals. Res. Behav. Commun. 87, 212–218. Cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies of Internet gaming disorder: a systematic review of the literature. J. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2004.7.571, Colder Carras, M., Van Rooij, A. J., Spruijit-Metz, D., Kvedar, J., Griffiths, M. D., Carabas, Y., et al. In addition, it is important not to forget that the present results are based on a self-selected sample in which potentially problematic video gamers were overrepresented (e.g., Festl et al., 2013, for a representative sample). Cyberpsychol. Hum. In our sample, N = 2,265 (83%) were identified as regular gamers, and N = 469 (17%) as problematic gamers. (2015). 12:66. doi: 10.1186/1471-2202-12-66, Mazurek, M. O., Engelhardt, C. R., and Clark, K. E. (2015). Impact Factor 2.067 | CiteScore 3.2More on impact ›, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain. 56, 267–283. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. Games … doi: 10.1026/0012-1924/a000032, Wang, H. R., Cho, H., and Kim, D.-J. Besides investigating the links between potentially problematic video game use and psychological functioning as well as between reasons for playing video games and psychological functioning, it is relevant to also look at which game genres individuals prefer. Prevalence and correlates of comorbid depression in a nonclinical online sample with DSM-5 internet gaming disorder. Cognitive enhancement in video game players: the role of video game genre. Psychol. In a second step, we computed partial correlations in which we controlled for sex and age because past research has repeatedly shown that sex and age are correlated with both video gaming (Homer et al., 2012; Mihara and Higuchi, 2017) and psychological functioning (Kessler et al., 2007; Nolen-Hoeksema, 2012). On the one hand, video game use is widespread, and it may come with certain precursors as well as consequences. Most scientific studies in this area of research have focused on the extent of video game play and its diverse correlates. Göttingen: Hogrefe. In a 2013 study, The University of California San Francisco discovered that 3-D video games can improve the memory of older adults. With all that being said, if you are asking the scientific community whether or not it is safe to play video games, the answer is yes, just be responsible. In effect, any pre-existing conditions act as symptoms of video game addiction when in fact they may be a driving force behind the addiction. Video game addiction: the push to pathologize video games. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. The instrument has been validated for different age groups in the general population and in clinical samples (Müller et al., 2014a, 2019, but note small sample size; Müller et al., 2014b). The final score (Min = 0, Max = 27 points) is computed using weighted scoring (items with an item-total correlation > 0.55 in the norm sample are weighted double; Wölfling et al., 2011). BMC Neurosci. 7, 571–581. doi: 10.1177/1046878108319930, Griffiths, M., Van Rooij, A. J., Kardefeldt-Winther, D., Starcevic, V., Király, O., Pallesen, S., et al. Children and video games: addiction, engagement, and scholastic achievement. Comput. Video Game Effects 2 Examining the effects of video games from a psychological perspective: Focus on violent games and a new synthesis During the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century, new types of mass media were produced and consumed. Conceiving the Self. Psychother. 16, 905–916. Hum. In this Norwegian study, more electronic gaming at 10 years old was linked to less social competence two years later, but only for girls. There isn’t really a right or wrong answer. J. Thér. In a first step, we computed zero-order correlations between the video gaming variables and the measures of psychological functioning. Effect sizes have varied widely across studies (Ferguson et al., 2011). Behav. Psychiatry 55, 770–777. 71, 425–444. doi: 10.1177/1046878108327539, Bean, A. M., Nielsen, R. K. L., van Rooij, A. J., and Ferguson, C. J. A cluster for unclassified subgenres (M = 1.54, SD = 0.39) was added to additionally account for such subgenres as jump’n’runs and games of skill. Diagnostica 49, 73–82. 19, 33–46. To summarize, visual selective attention is the ability to remain focused despite a host of distraction, to single out the intended thing, and focus solely on that. Since the WHO’s announcement, reactions to “gaming disorder” have been mixed. A recent study published in Frontiers in Psychology looked at 167 young adults who self reported as either non-gamers, non-violent gamers, or violent gamers, using an online questionnaire and the Levinson’s Psychopathy Scale. Associations between reasons for playing video games and psychological functioning. While some parents claim video games have no effect on their child, many experts warn about the harmful effects violent games can have on kids. Psychol. 8, 161–187. A total of N = 2,891 individuals (2,421 male, 470 female) with a mean age of 23.17 years (SD = 5.99, Range: 13–65) participated in our study. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2006.9.772, Keywords: computer games, video gaming behavior, game genres, coping, psychological health, Citation: von der Heiden JM, Braun B, Müller KW and Egloff B (2019) The Association Between Video Gaming and Psychological Functioning. These results on reasons and genres may help to explain conflicting findings of former studies, because in our work we examined various reasons for playing, several game genres, and various aspects of psychological functioning simultaneously. These findings suggest that, on the one hand, independent of one’s psychological conditions, enjoying oneself during gaming (i.e., experiencing positive affect, connecting with online friends) may go along with potentially problematic use of video games. Motiv. Psychol. Personal. In the last few years, the amount of scientific research devoted to video game playing has increased (e.g., Ferguson, 2015; Calvert et al., 2017; Hamari and Keronen, 2017). Generally, this decision has been supported by many researchers (e.g., Petry et al., 2014) but has also caused controversies. Distinguishing addiction and high engagement in the context of online game playing. Psychiatry 8:300. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00300. On top of that, for every study that finds violent video games to be harmful, there is another study showing that there simply are no effects. Addictive online games: examining the relationship between game genres and internet gaming disorder. Nervous Mental Dis. SCL-90-R: Symptom Checklist-90-R: Administration, Scoring, and Procedures Manual. (2010). We implemented agreed procedures to maintain the confidentiality of participant data. Wölfling, K., Müller, K. W., and Beutel, M. (2011). (2014). In part, this recommendation has also been followed in the DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) where Internet Gaming Disorder is classified with different degrees of severity, ranging from mild to moderate to severe, according to the functional impairment associated with it. Prevalence of internet addiction in the general population: results from a German population-based survey. Schwarzer, R., and Jerusalem, M. (1995). Inform. Psychiatr. But, there is the possibility of addiction looming and while rare, it is real. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032511-143109, Park, J. H., Han, D. H., Kim, B. N., Cheong, J. H., and Lee, Y. S. (2016). Schwarzer, R., and Schulz, U. Interestingly what they did find was that the participants reported games were able to help them cope with feelings of boredom, loneliness and stress, and that their wellbeing improved because of this. 7:563. doi: 10.1007/s11469-009-9202-8, Jeong, E. J., and Kim, D. H. (2011). (2018). 4:608. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00608, Homer, B. D., Hayward, E. O., Frye, J., and Plass, J. L. (2012). Psychother. Cronbach’s alpha was excellent (α = 0.86). As a symptom of video game addiction, a condition like depression or anxiety would become increasingly worse the more a p… In one study in particular, a group of researchers found that merely 1 hour of gaming was enough to improve visual selective attention. Comput. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. It remains unclear whether potentially problematic gaming is a factor that contributes to the development of psychological dysfunction or whether psychological dysfunction contributes to potentially problematic gaming. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.08.011, Taquet, P., Romo, L., Cottencin, O., Ortiz, D., and Hautekeete, M. (2017). 2017 Global Games Market Report: Trends, Insights, and Projections Toward 2020. doi: 10.2196/jmir.3515. Aggression in teens: One of the most detrimental effects of playing violent video games is increased aggression in children. The effects of video games are not black and white-either for positive advancement of human life (such as learning) or for moral deterioration (such as aggression in play). Intercorrelations of the two items per subscale ranged from r = 0.32, p < 0.001 for positive reframing to r = 0.78, p < 0.001 for substance use (with one exception: r = -0.05, p = 0.01 for self-distraction). Participants reported their grade point average. Lower self-esteem, lower life satisfaction, and, to a lesser extent, poorer perceived social support and lower self-efficacy went along with potentially problematic video game use. Mental Health Addict. The purpose of the present research is to determine whether playing video games impacts academic performance as determined by GPA. Psychiatry 24, 565–574. While the negative aspects of video games are most popularly highlighted, and while it is not as well advertised as are the negatives, there are an extensive amount of positive benefits of video games that many people fail to acknowledge.. For instance, video games are highly stimulating. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2012.0090, Granic, I., Lobel, A., and Engels, R. C. (2014). 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